# Chapter 10 chemlab determine the formula of a hydrate answers

If the iron corrodes, the magnesium will replace it, restoring the iron. The number of oxygen atoms is not balanced. The cut piece with the larger surface area will expose more of the soluble chemicals to the water, and will have a greater loss of mass.

To obtain the mass of water, subtract the mass.

## Question #c0a3d

Applying Scientific Methods 1. To obtain the mass of anhydrous MgSO4, subtract the mass of the crucible and cover from the mass of the crucible, cover, and anhydrous MgSO4.

Divide by the molar mass. Calculate the ratio of moles of water to moles. Shiny, translucent crystals The hydrated MgSO4 is shiny and translucent. Expected Results: The gum will lose mass after. Answers will vary, but student experiments will likely involve measuring initial compound mass, heating, and measuring the mass again after heating.

Accept all reasonable answers. Section Divide the mass of each element in the sample. Then multiply each quotient by By definition, One mole of any substance is Avogadros number of representative particles, which in this case, are C atoms. Because 6. From the percent composition, one can find the.

Empirical and Molecular Formula from Percent Composition (No. 1)

This whole-number mole ratio determines the empirical formula of the compound. For some compounds, the empirical formula indicates the actual number of atoms or ions in a compound, so it is the compounds molecular formula. Examples include H2O and HCl. For other compounds, the molecular formula is the empirical formula multiplied by a whole number.

To find the whole number, the molar mass must be known. Because the formula unit contains only one. Because the molar mass of hydrogen is less than that of oxygen, which is less than that of copper, the ranking of the percent by mass are H, O, and Cu.

So element 1 1. Thinking Critically Quantity a Atoms in CoCl22H2O, Graph 2 shows that the percent compositions of oxygen and hydrogen are less in compound 2 than in compound 3. Therefore, compound 2 must have less water associated with it than compound 3.The idea here is that you can sue the vapor density of a gas to determine its molar mass.

Simply put, vapor density tells you the density of a gas relative to the density of hydrogen gas. If you use the fact that the mass of a gas, i. In your case, the unknown hydrocarbon is said to have a vapor density equal to This means that its molar mass will be. Now, you know that you're dealing with a "0.

Use its molar mass to determine how many moles you have in this sample. Use the molar masses of the elements to determine how many moles of each you have.

This is how many moles of each element you have in 0. In order to find the compound's molecular formulayou need to figure out how many moles of each element you have in 1 mole of gas "X". So the ratio of masses of Carbon and Hydrogen present in HC as per its molecular formula is 12x:y. Now by the problem 0. Hence the ratio of masses of C and H is 0. Stefan V. May 4, Explanation: The idea here is that you can sue the vapor density of a gas to determine its molar mass. Use its molar mass to determine how many moles you have in this sample 0. Related questions Is it possible to find a molecular formula from molar mass?

Question What are some common mistakes students make when determining formulas? How can I determine the formula of an acid? How can I determine the chemical formula of a product? How can I determine the empirical formula of a compound? How can I determine the formula of a hydrate?

What does the empirical formula indicate? A molecule with molecular weight of Do I need to know the number of moles of each element to determine the formula of the compound? See all questions in Determining Formula.

Impact of this question views around the world. You can reuse this answer Creative Commons License.When chemists synthesize a new compound, they may not yet know its molecular or structural formula.

In such cases, they usually begin by determining its empirical formula A formula for a compound that consists of the atomic symbol for each component element accompanied by a subscript indicating the relative number of atoms of that element in the compound, reduced to the smallest whole numbers.

Because the empirical formula is based on experimental measurements of the numbers of atoms in a sample of the compound, it shows only the ratios of the numbers of the elements present. The difference between empirical and molecular formulas can be illustrated with butane, a covalent compound used as the fuel in disposable lighters. The molecular formula for butane is C 4 H The ratio of carbon atoms to hydrogen atoms in butane iswhich can be reduced to The empirical formula for butane is therefore C 2 H 5.

The formula unit The absolute grouping of atoms or ions represented by the empirical formula. Butane, for example, has the empirical formula C 2 H 5but it contains two C 2 H 5 formula units, giving a molecular formula of C 4 H Because ionic compounds do not contain discrete molecules, empirical formulas are used to indicate their compositions. All compounds, whether ionic or covalent, must be electrically neutral.

Consequently, the positive and negative charges in a formula unit must exactly cancel each other. If the charges are not the same magnitude, then a cation:anion ratio other than is needed to produce a neutral compound. Ionic compounds do not contain discrete molecules, so empirical formulas are used to indicate their compositions. An ionic compound that contains only two elements, one present as a cation and one as an anion, is called a binary ionic compound An ionic compound that contains only two elements, one present as a cation and one as an anion.

One example is MgCl 2, a coagulant used in the preparation of tofu from soybeans. For binary ionic compounds, the subscripts in the empirical formula can also be obtained by crossing charges: use the absolute value of the charge on one ion as the subscript for the other ion. This method is shown schematically as follows:.

Crossing charges. One method for obtaining subscripts in the empirical formula is by crossing charges.

### Lab 2 - Determination of the Empirical Formula of Magnesium Oxide

When crossing charges, you will sometimes find it necessary to reduce the subscripts to their simplest ratio to write the empirical formula. Using the absolute values of the charges on the ions as subscripts gives the formula Mg 2 O 2 :. This simplifies to its correct empirical formula MgO. Write the empirical formula for the simplest binary ionic compound formed from each ion or element pair. Given: ions or elements. Asked for: empirical formula for binary ionic compound.

A If not given, determine the ionic charges based on the location of the elements in the periodic table. B Use the absolute value of the charge on each ion as the subscript for the other ion. Reduce the subscripts to the lowest numbers to write the empirical formula.

Check to make sure the empirical formula is electrically neutral. B Using the absolute values of the charges on the ions as the subscripts gives Ga 3 As 3 :. Because we write subscripts only if the number is greater than 1, the empirical formula is GaAs.Introduction:A hydrated crystal is a typically an ionic compound that has water molecules trapped within the crystal. This usually occurs because the compounds are hygroscopic;which means they absorb water from the air. Since the structure of most hydrates are unknown or verycomplex,a dot. When hydrates are heated,the water is released from the crystal.

After observing, carefully remove the beaker with the beaker tongs and place it on a piece of paper towel away from the hot plate. After 10 minutes,remove the evaporating dish use crucible tongs from bthe hot plate and place it on the wire gauze. You and your partner wil place the evaporating dish in the desiccator and let it cool for 10 min.

After 10 min. What happen if a small amount 0. What would happen to the color? Write an equation that describes this process. If you please take the time to read this. This usually occurs because the compounds are hygroscopic;which means they absorb I already answered this question but when I clicked submit,there's this thing about yahoo ans is currently unavailable blah blah that's why my answer was not posted. And I even spent lots of time on it! So I will answer this again but in a quickiest way.

Mass of hydrate: 1. Can't answer the last 2? I'd be very thankful. Measure the mass of the evaporating dish to the nearest 0. Record measurment in data. Add about 1. Record in data. Place the beaker and contents on the hot plate and cover it with an mL beaker. Observe the inside of the beaker for a few minutes, 5.

Continue heating yhe dish and contents for 10 minutes. Calculate the mass of anhydrous CuSO4 2. What type of compound is CuSO4 ionic,covalent Answer Save. Roger the Mole Lv 7. Favorite Answer. Calculate the mass of anhydrous CuSO4 Write an equation that describes this process It would turn blue again. This Site Might Help You. Debra Lv 4. Still have questions?Zinc Zn is used to form a corrosion-inhibiting surface on galvanized steel.

Determine the number of Zn atoms in 2. Challenge Calculate the number of oxygen atoms in 5. How many moles contain each of the following? Challenge Identify the representative particle for each formula, and convert the given number of representative particles to moles. Apply How does a chemist count the number of particles in a given number of moles of a substance?

Calculate the number of representative particles of each substance. Challenge Convert each given quantity in scientific notation to mass in grams expressed in scientific notation. Determine the number of moles in each of the following. Convert each mass to moles. Express the answer in scientific notation.

How many atoms are in each of the following samples? What is the mass in grams of each of the following? Convert each given mass to number of representative particles.

Identify the type of representative particle, and express the number in scientific notation. Summarize in terms of particles and mass, one-mole quantities of two different monatomic elements. Describe the steps used to convert the mass of an element to the number of atoms of the element.

Arrange these quantities from smallest to largest in terms of mass: 1. Identify the quantity that is calculated by dividing the molar mass of an element by Avogadro's number.

Design a concept map that shows the conversion factors needed to convert between mass, moles, and number of particles. Calculate the number of moles of each element in 1.Chapter 1 Chapter 1: The Chemical World 1. One skill needed in future chapters is the ability to determine the mass of the formula of an ionic compound.

This quantity is called the formula mass. The formula mass is obtained by adding the masses of each individual atom in the formula of the compound.

Because a proper formula is electrically neutral with no net electrons gained or lostthe ions can be considered atoms for the purpose of calculating the formula mass. Let us start by calculating the formula mass of sodium chloride NaCl.

This formula mass is the sum of the atomic masses of one sodium atom and one chlorine atom, which we find from the periodic table; here, we use the masses to two decimal places:.

## HYDRATED CRYSTALS CHEMISTRY LAB HELP!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!?

When an ionic compound has more than one anion or cation, you must remember to use the proper multiple of the atomic mass for the element in question. For the formula mass of calcium fluoride CaF 2we must multiply the mass of the fluorine atom by 2 to account for the two fluorine atoms in the chemical formula:. For ionic compounds with polyatomic ions, the sum must include the number and mass of each atom in the formula for the polyatomic ion.

For example, potassium nitrate KNO 3 has one potassium atom, one nitrogen atom, and three oxygen atoms:. When a formula contains more than one polyatomic unit in the chemical formula, as in Ca NO 3 2do not forget to multiply the atomic mass of every atom inside the parentheses by the subscript outside the parentheses. This is necessary because the subscript refers to the entire polyatomic ion. The key to calculating the formula mass of an ionic compound is to correctly count each atom in the formula and multiply the atomic masses of its atoms accordingly.

Use the atomic masses rounded to two decimal places to determine the formula mass for each ionic compound. When we distribute the subscript 3 through the parentheses containing the formula for the ammonium ion, we see that we have 3 nitrogen atoms and 12 hydrogen atoms.

Thus, we set up the sum as follows:. The formula mass for NH 4 3 PO 4 is Some ionic compounds have water H 2 O incorporated within their formula unit. These compounds, called hydrateshave a characteristic number of water units associated with each formula unit of the compound.

Hydrates are solids, not liquids or solutions, despite the water they contain. To write the chemical formula of a hydrate, write the number of water units per formula unit of compound after its chemical formula. The two chemical formulas are separated by a vertically centered dot. The name of this compound is copper II sulfate pentahydrate, with the penta- prefix indicating the presence of five water units per formula unit of copper II sulfate.

Hydrates have various uses in the health industry. Aluminum chloride hexahydrate is an active ingredient in antiperspirants. The accompanying table lists some useful hydrates.

Learning Objectives To determine the formula mass of an ionic or molecular compound. This formula mass is the sum of the atomic masses of one sodium atom and one chlorine atom, which we find from the periodic table; here, we use the masses to two decimal places: Na: For the formula mass of calcium fluoride CaF 2we must multiply the mass of the fluorine atom by 2 to account for the two fluorine atoms in the chemical formula: Ca: 1 x For example, potassium nitrate KNO 3 has one potassium atom, one nitrogen atom, and three oxygen atoms: K: 1 x Potassium nitrate is a key ingredient in gunpowder and has been used clinically as a diuretic.

Fe: 1 x Thus, we set up the sum as follows: N: 3 x Figure used with permisison from Wikipedia.For regression ensembles, the predicted values are averaged. For a logistic regression, input data for all numerical fields except the objective field must be provided. Example: "my new prediction" private optional Whether you want your prediction to be private or not. This will be 201 upon successful creation of the prediction and 200 afterwards. Make sure that you check the code that comes with the status attribute to make sure that the prediction creation has been completed without errors.

The method used to combine predictions from the non-boosted ensemble. See the available combiners above. However, for logistic regressions, it really means probability, and thus, confidence will be deprecated soon.

Note that this property is not available for ensembles with boosted trees and that for models An array of confidence pairs for each category in the objective field. True when the prediction has been created in the development mode. The number of predictions in the ensemble that failed.

The dictionary of input fields' ids and values used as input for the prediction. Specifies the type of strategy that a model or models in an ensemble will follow when a missing value needed to continue with inference in the model is found. Either 0, 1, or 2 to specify respectively whether the prediction is from a single model, an ensemble, or a logistic regression.

The id of the field that it predicts in the model, ensemble, or logistic regression. A string if the task is classification, a number if the task is regression prediction filterable, sortable A dictionary keyed with the objective field to get the prediction output for the model, ensemble, or logistic regression.

An array with a prediction object for each model in the non-boosted ensemble. An array of probability pairs for each category in the objective field. The parameters (k and class) given when a threshold-based combiner is used for the non-boosted ensemble. A list of the confidence (or expected error in the regression non-boosted ensemble) for each prediction candidate. Bad fields are ignored. That is, if you submit a value that is wrong, a prediction is created anyway ignoring the input field with the wrong value. 